A normal menstrual cycle involves ovulation and the preparation of the uterus for fertilization. The endometrial lining then thickens, and when fertilization doesn't occur, this lining sheds. This shedding is known as menstruation and lasts 3-7 days, returning the next cycle every 21 - 35 days. Various menstrual abnormalities & conditions and disorders can cause abnormalities with the menstrual cycle, hormones and fertility but your gynaecologist, Dr Ati, can assist in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

There is a range of conditions that can affect the female reproductive system, wreaking havoc with the hormones and menstrual cycle. The most common gynaecological conditions seen by Dr Ati are:

Abnormal uterine bleeding

Any menstrual bleeding that is abnormally heavy lasts more than seven days or involves soaking through your sanitary wear is known as abnormal uterine bleeding. Bleeding that is unrelated to menstruation, such as bleeding after sex, or spotting between periods, also qualifies as abnormal uterine bleeding. While each woman’s menstrual cycle and experience of premenstrual symptoms is different, abnormalities in your menstrual cycle should be cause for concern and should be discussed with your gynaecologist.

Vaginal discharge

Discharge is merely fluid made by glands inside the vagina and cervix, keeps the vagina clean and prevents infection. Depending on the stage in the cycle, discharge can change in colour, consistency and odour. Vaginal discharge is perfectly normal; however, vaginal discharge that is thick, white, yellow-grey, green or foul-smelling should be an indication of an infection. Abnormal vaginal discharge along with burning, itching, swelling or inflammation of the vagina or vulva as well as pain or burning sensation when urinating or during sex, may be a sign of something more serious such as an STD or STI and should be checked by your gynaecologist.

Chronic pelvic pain

Pelvic pain is a pain in the general pelvic area. Chronic pelvic pain can be off and on, or constant for days on end. It can be a sharp or dull pain, pressure or cramping in the pelvic area. It may or may not be related to your menstrual cycle, and can occur during sex, urination, bowel movements and sitting or standing. Since a range of different conditions can cause it, it is crucial to have your gynaecologist check it out to see what may be causing it.


Chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis often go hand-in-hand. Endometriosis is a gynaecological condition in which tissue similar to that of the endometrial lining, is found outside the uterus. This tissue bleeds just like the endometrial lining does when menstruating, causing excruciating pelvic pain with sex, urination or bowel movements, and excessive bleeding during menstruation. Endometriosis also leads to fertility problems. If you notice these symptoms, you should see your gynecologist to have them checked-out.